# Spectral equivalence of matrix polynomials and the index sum theorem

De Teran, Fernando and Dopico, Froilan M. and Mackey, D. Steven (2013) Spectral equivalence of matrix polynomials and the index sum theorem. [MIMS Preprint]

The concept of linearization is fundamental for theory, applications, and spectral computations related to matrix polynomials. However, recent research on several important classes of structured matrix polynomials arising in applications has revealed that the strategy of using linearizations to develop structure-preserving numerical algorithms that compute the eigenvalues of structured matrix polynomials can be too restrictive, because some structured polynomials do not have any linearization with the same structure. This phenomenon strongly suggests that linearizations should sometimes be replaced by other low degree matrix polynomials in applied numerical computations. Motivated by this fact, we introduce equivalence relations that allow the possibility of matrix polynomials (with coefficients in an arbitrary field) to be equivalent, with the same spectral structure, but have different sizes and degrees. These equivalence relations are directly modeled on the notion of linearization, and consequently inherit the simplicity, applicability, and most relevant properties of linearizations; simultaneously, though, they are much more flexible in the possible degrees of equivalent polynomials. This flexibility allows us to define in a unified way the notions of quadratification and $\ell$-ification, to introduce the concept of companion form of arbitrary degree, and to provide concrete and simple examples of these notions that generalize in a natural and smooth way the classical first and second Frobenius companion forms. The properties of $\ell$-ifications are studied in depth; in this process a fundamental result on matrix polynomials, the Index Sum Theorem'', is recovered and extended to arbitrary fields. Although this result is known in the systems theory literature for real matrix polynomials, it has remained unnoticed by many researchers. It establishes that the sum of the (finite and infinite) partial multiplicities, together with the (left and right) minimal indices of any matrix polynomial is equal to the rank times the degree of the polynomial. The Index Sum Theorem'' turns out to be a key tool for obtaining a number of significant results: on the possible sizes and degrees of $\ell$-ifications and companion forms, on the minimal index preservation properties of companion forms of arbitrary degree, as well as on obstructions to the existence of structured companion forms for structured matrix polynomials of even degree. This paper presents many new results, blended together with results already known in the literature but extended here to the most general setting of matrix polynomials of arbitrary sizes and degrees over arbitrary fields. Therefore we have written the paper in an expository and self-contained style that makes it accessible to a wide variety of readers.
Item Type: MIMS Preprint matrix polynomial, matrix pencil, linearization, quadratification, $\ell$-ification, singular, regular, unimodular equivalence, spectral equivalence, elementary divisors, partial multiplicity sequence, structural indices, minimal indices, index sum theorem, companion forms, structured matrix polynomials MSC 2010, the AMS's Mathematics Subject Classification > 15 Linear and multilinear algebra; matrix theoryMSC 2010, the AMS's Mathematics Subject Classification > 65 Numerical analysis Dr. D. Steven Mackey 26 Aug 2013 08 Nov 2017 18:18 http://eprints.maths.manchester.ac.uk/id/eprint/2017